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Refereed International Conference Poster

Pipeline-aware Logic Deduplication in High-Level Synthesis for Post-Quantum Cryptography Algorithms [abstract]
Changsu Kim, Yongwoo Lee, Shinnung Jeong, Wen Wang, Jakub Szefer, and Hanjun Kim
Proceedings of the 2020 ACM/SIGDA International Symposium on Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), February 2020.

With the technical advance of quantum computers that can solve intractable problems for conventional computers, many of the currently used public-key cryptosystems become vulnerable. Recently proposed post-quantum cryptography (PQC) is secure against both classical and quantum computers, but existing embedded systems such as smart card can not easily support the PQC algorithms due to their much larger key sizes and more complex arithmetics. To accelerate the PQC algorithms, embedded systems have to embed the PQC hardware blocks, which can lead to huge hardware design costs. Although High-Level Synthesis (HLS) helps significantly reduce the design costs, current HLS frameworks produce inefficient hardware design for the PQC algorithms in terms of area and performance. This work analyzes common features of the PQC algorithms and proposes a new pipeline-aware logic deduplication method in HLS. The proposed method shares commonly invoked logic across hardware design while considering load balancing in pipeline and resolving dynamic memory accesses. This work implements FPGA hardware design of seven PQC algorithms in the round 2 candidates from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) PQC standardization process. Compared to commercial HLS framework, the proposed method achieves an area-delay-product reduction by 34.5\%.